What are Eco Labels?

Eco labels

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Eco-labeling stands as a key influencer in promoting environmentally sound choices among consumers. As global interest in sustainability increases, these labels provide essential information about the environmental impact of products and services. This transparency enables consumers to make informed decisions while encouraging manufacturers to adopt greener practices.

The importance of eco-labelling extends beyond individual choices, reflecting a collective commitment to environmental stewardship and sustainable development. This guide will explore the types of eco-labels, their significance, and their impact on both the market and the environment.

What is an Eco Label?

An eco-label is a mark or certification for products and services that meet predefined environmental criteria. These labels aim to inform consumers about a product’s environmental impact, enabling them to make informed choices that minimise environmental harm.

Eco-labels are based on a thorough assessment process that examines various stages of the product’s lifecycle—from raw material extraction through production, use, and disposal.

Meaning of eco label
Definition of eco labelling

What is Eco-Labelling?

Eco-labelling refers to the process of analysing and certifying products and services based on their environmental performance. This process encompasses a detailed evaluation of a product’s environmental impacts throughout its lifecycle. The goal is to ensure that the products meet stringent environmental standards before they are granted an eco-label.

The certification process is carried out by independent third-party organisations that establish the criteria for certification. These standards are comprehensive and scientifically based, ensuring that products labelled as environmentally friendly truly adhere to high levels of environmental performance.

Types of Eco Labels

Three types of eco label

There are several types of eco-labels, each serving a different purpose or highlighting different aspects of sustainability.

Type I - Third-Party Certified

Type I eco-labels are awarded by an independent third party that verifies a product’s environmental labelling claims according to a set of rigorous criteria. This certification process is one of the most stringent and credible forms of eco-labelling. It involves comprehensively evaluating the product’s environmental aspects throughout its lifecycle.

Key Characteristics:

  • Independent Verification: The assessment and certification are conducted by a recognised, impartial organisation, ensuring no bias in the process.
  • Life Cycle Assessment: The criteria used for certification consider the entire product lifecycle, from raw materials and manufacturing to usage and disposal.
  • Transparency: Standards and criteria for certification are publicly available, providing clear information on what the certification signifies.


  • The Blue Angel in Germany covers a wide range of products and services and is recognised for its rigorous environmental standards.
  • The Nordic Swan in Scandinavian countries evaluates the environmental impact of products and services from a lifecycle perspective.

Type II - Self-Declared Environmental Claims

Type II eco-labels are based on self-declared environmental claims made by manufacturers, suppliers, or importers. These labels do not require verification by an independent third party, placing the onus for the accuracy and validity of the environmental claims solely on the entity making them. 

This category allows companies to highlight specific environmental attributes of their products, such as energy efficiency, reduced chemical usage, or incorporation of recycled materials. 

While the Type II category offers businesses the flexibility to market their products’ environmental advantages, it also demands that consumers be more discerning. Without the oversight of a third-party verifier, there is a greater risk of encountering exaggerated or misleading claims. 

National and international guidelines, such as the Federal Trade Commission’s Green Guides in the United States, exist to regulate these claims and help prevent deceptive marketing practices. However, the effectiveness of such regulations can vary, and consumers are encouraged to verify the credibility of eco-labels and the companies behind them.

Key Characteristics:

  • Self-Certification: Manufacturers directly assert the environmental benefits of their product without external verification.
  • Specific Claims: These labels typically focus on particular aspects of a product’s environmental performance, such as being “recyclable” or “biodegradable.”
  • Flexibility: Companies can tailor claims to specific features of their products that are environmentally beneficial.
  • Regulation: Despite the lack of third-party certification, national or international advertising standards often regulate these claims to prevent misleading information.


Type III - Quantitative Environmental Data

Type III eco-labels, often called environmental product declarations, provide detailed quantitative ecological data about a product’s lifecycle based on a comprehensive analysis. 

This labelling type focuses on a product’s specific environmental aspects, such as greenhouse gas emissions, water usage, and energy consumption during manufacturing, usage, and disposal phases. 

Unlike Type I and Type II labels, Type III labels do not endorse or certify the product as environmentally superior; instead, they present a factual, unbiased report of its environmental impact throughout its lifecycle.

Key Characteristics:

  • Detailed Life Cycle Analysis: Type III labels involve a thorough analysis of the product’s environmental impacts through its entire lifecycle, from raw material extraction to disposal.
  • Quantitative Data: These labels provide specific data on various environmental impacts, such as carbon footprint, water usage, and energy consumption.
  • Standardised Formats: The information is presented in a standardised format based on internationally recognised methodologies, making it easier for consumers and businesses to compare products objectively.
  • Verification: Although the manufacturer provides the information, it is typically verified by a third party to ensure accuracy and reliability.


  • Construction materials often have EPDs that detail their environmental impact, which is crucial for building projects seeking green certification like LEED or BREEAM.
  • Various consumer electronics feature Type III labelling to illustrate their energy consumption and environmental impact during their operational lifetime.

Why is Eco-Labeling Necessary?

Eco-labelling plays a crucial role in the modern marketplace by bridging the gap between environmental awareness and consumer behaviour. Its necessity stems from several key factors that collectively drive a more sustainable economy and a healthier planet.

  • Consumer Information and Choice: In a market flooded with products, eco-labels are a critical tool for consumers who wish to make environmentally sound decisions. These labels provide clear and reliable information on the sustainability of products, allowing consumers to easily distinguish those that align with their values on environmental responsibility.
  • Environmental Impact Reduction: Eco-labeling encourages manufacturers to reduce the environmental footprints of their products. This is achieved through stringent standards and criteria that products must meet before receiving certification. Companies contribute to pollution reduction, resource conservation, and overall environmental protection by complying with these standards.
  • Market Differentiation and Business Growth: Eco-labelling offers a competitive edge for businesses. Products with eco-labels often attract consumers willing to pay a premium for environmentally friendly goods, thus opening new markets and expanding the customer base. This competitive differentiation can be crucial for companies in industries where consumers are particularly environmentally conscious.
  • Regulatory Compliance and Industry Standards: Eco-labeling often aligns with or supports compliance with local, national, and international organization environmental regulations. For businesses, staying ahead in eco-labelling can preempt regulatory pressures and align with global trends toward sustainability standards.
  • Promoting Transparency and Trust: Eco-labels encourage greater transparency in the marketplace, as they require companies to disclose information about the environmental aspects of their products. This transparency builds trust between consumers and brands, encouraging more informed choices and fostering a more accountable business environment.

Pros and Cons of Eco-Labeling

Enhanced Consumer Information – Eco-labels provide clear and reliable information on product sustainability, helping consumers make informed choices that align with their environmental values.
Cost of Certification – Obtaining eco-label certification is costly for manufacturers. It involves fees for assessment, certification, and sometimes ongoing monitoring.
Environmental Impact Reduction – Manufacturers help reduce pollution, conserve resources, and protect natural habitats by meeting stringent environmental standards.
Complexity and Confusion – The variety of eco-labels available can confuse consumers. Different eco-label standards and criteria may make it difficult to understand what each label signifies.
Market Differentiation – Eco-labeled products can distinguish themselves in the marketplace, attracting consumers willing to pay a premium for environmentally friendly products.
Potential for Greenwashing – Some labels can be used unscrupulously without stringent regulations and oversight, misleading consumers with vague or overstated claims.
Regulatory Compliance – Eco-labeling can help companies comply with environmental regulations and industry standards, avoiding legal requirements.
Limited Scope – Some eco-labels might only focus on specific aspects of sustainability, ignoring others, which could lead to a narrow view of a product’s overall environmental impact.
Transparency and Trust Building – Transparency about a product’s environmental aspects fosters trust and accountability, strengthening consumer loyalty.
Barrier to Market Entry – Small and medium enterprises might struggle with the financial and bureaucratic challenges of obtaining eco-label certification, which could potentially limit their market opportunities.

Tips for Eco-Labelling

Four tips for eco labelling

Implementing eco-labelling requires careful consideration of the criteria, process, and communication strategies to ensure it achieves its goals of promoting sustainability and informed consumer choices. Here are some tips for businesses and organisations developing or improving their eco-labelling practices.

Understand the Certification Standards

Before pursuing eco-label certification, it is essential for companies to thoroughly understand the specific standards and criteria required by the labelling authority. Each eco-labelling program has its own requirements, focusing on different aspects of environmental performance, such as resource usage, energy efficiency, emissions levels, and more.

Key Steps:

  • Research: Research the various eco-labels applicable to your industry and product type. Identify which labels are most recognised and valued by your target consumers and stakeholders.
  • Standards Review: Carefully review the standards associated with each label. This may involve analysing technical documents and guidelines to ensure your product can meet the required criteria.
  • Consultation: Consult with experts or third parties specialising in eco-label certification. They can offer insights into the certification process and help identify potential gaps in your product’s environmental performance.

Engage in Transparent Communication

Transparency is key to successful eco-labelling. 

Eco-labelling involves clearly communicating the environmental attributes of your products to consumers without overstating or misrepresenting the benefits. This practice builds trust and educates consumers about the significance of eco-friendly choices.

Key Steps:

  • Disclosure: Provide full disclosure of the environmental impacts associated with the product. This includes the benefits and potential drawbacks, ensuring that consumers have a comprehensive understanding of the product they are purchasing.
  • Marketing Materials: Use marketing materials to clearly explain what the eco-label represents and how the product meets these criteria. Avoid technical jargon that may confuse consumers; use clear and simple language or incorporate a QR Code.
  • Customer Engagement: Create platforms for customer feedback and questions about the product’s environmental claims and the certification process. This could be through social media, your website’s dedicated sections, or customer service.

Ensure Product Compliance Throughout the Lifecycle

Maintaining compliance with eco-labelling standards throughout the product life cycle is crucial for the integrity of the eco-label. 

Key Steps:

  • Life Cycle Considerations and Assessment: Conduct regular assessments of the product’s lifecycle to identify areas where environmental impact can be reduced. This assessment should cover all phases, from raw material sourcing and production to use and end-of-life disposal.
  • Supplier Collaboration: Work closely with suppliers to ensure that all components and materials used in the product meet eco-labelling standards. This involves selecting suppliers with their own environmental performance certification or committed to sustainable practices.
  • Continuous Improvement: Implement a plan for continuous improvement based on the product’s life cycle assessment. This could include innovations in production processes, using more sustainable materials, or improving product efficiency and recyclability.
  • Documentation and Record Keeping: Keep detailed records of compliance efforts and improvements. If challenged, this documentation is essential for re-certification and defending the product’s eco-label status.

Stay Updated With Latest Environmental Sustainability Practices

Staying current with the latest sustainability practices and environmental standards is essential for maintaining eco-label certifications and meeting consumer expectations. This requires a proactive approach to integrating new technologies and methodologies that enhance products’ environmental performance.

Key Steps:

  • Continual Learning: Stay informed about new developments in sustainability, including emerging trends, technologies, and regulatory changes that could affect your products. Attending industry conferences, subscribing to relevant publications, and participating in sustainability networks can help.
  • Innovation Integration: Evaluate and integrate innovative practices that reduce environmental impact. This involves adopting more efficient production technologies, utilising renewable energy sources, or using advanced materials less harmful to the environment.
  • Stakeholder Collaboration: Engage with stakeholders, including customers, industry peers, and environmental organisations, to share knowledge and best practices. Collaboration can improve product design and manufacturing processes that benefit everyone involved.
  • Policy Review and Adaptation: Regularly review and update your environmental policies to align with sustainability standards and consumer expectations. This may require revising goals and objectives as new best practices and technologies become available.

Common Eco Labels in Different Countries

Five countries and their common eco labels

Eco-label requirements vary across different regions due to various factors, including local environmental priorities, regulatory frameworks, and consumer awareness. These variations are necessary to address specific local and regional environmental issues, such as water usage in arid areas or forest management in regions rich in woodland resources. 

Additionally, cultural and economic differences influence consumer behaviour and overall environmental preference, necessitating tailored approaches to eco-labelling that resonate with local populations.

Eco Label
Governing Authority
Energy Star
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency & Department of Energy
Focuses on energy efficiency in products like appliances and electronics.
Australian Certified Organic
Australian Organic Limited
Certifies organic products, ensuring they meet strict production standards.
New Zealand
Environmental Choice New Zealand
Environmental Choice New Zealand
Covers a wide range of products, ensuring they have a lower environmental impact.
Blue Angel
German Federal Environmental Agency
Oldest eco-label, focusing on a wide range of environmental and health protection criteria.
UL Environment
Covers products and services that have reduced environmental impact.


Eco-labelling is pivotal in guiding consumer behaviour and promoting sustainable manufacturing practices worldwide. As we have explored, the diversity of eco-labels across different countries underscores the importance of tailoring the certification program to address local environmental issues and regulatory frameworks. 

Ultimately, the continued evolution and adoption of global ecolabelling network are essential for achieving sustainable consumption. It encourages a collective shift towards environmentally responsible choices, fostering a market environment where eco-friendly products and sustainable practices are rewarded and become the norm. 

We hope this article was helpful.

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